Multilateral Export Control and Non-Proliferation Regimes

Wassenaar Arragement meeting

DTSA represents the Department of Defense and provides Policy and technical subject matter expertise to the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy at the Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies (WA), the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), the Hague Code of Conduct (HCOC), the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), the Australia Group, and the Zangger Committee (ZC). Multilateral controls and common best practices established by these regimes and committees are incorporated into U.S. export control lists and regulations as well as national control lists of member countries. These regimes are an important multilateral tool to prevent the transfer of sensitive items and technologies to countries or entities of national security and proliferation concern.

Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies - 42 Participating States

The Wassenaar Arrangement (WA) is the first multilateral institution covering both conventional weapons and sensitive dual-use goods and technologies. The WA is designed to prevent destabilizing accumulations of arms and dual-use goods and technologies. The Arrangement encourages transparency, consultation and, where appropriate, national policies of restraint. In doing so, the WA fosters greater responsibility and accountability in transfers of arms and dual use goods and technologies. The Arrangement also provides a venue in which governments can consider collectively the implications of various transfers on their international and regional security interests. WA members maintain export controls on the WA Munitions and Dual-Use lists. Wassenaar also provides a forum for discussing security and conventional weapons nonproliferation issues that do not fall within one of the other, more established nonproliferation regimes.

Missile Technology Control Regime - 35 Partners

The MTCR Partners have committed to apply a common export policy (MTCR Guidelines) applied to a common list (MTCR Annex) of controlled items, including virtually all key equipment and technology needed for missile development, production, and operation. The Guidelines and Annex are implemented by each Partner in accordance with its national laws and legislation. The MTCR Guidelines restrict transfers of missiles -- and technology related to missiles -- for the delivery of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The Regime places particular focus on missiles capable of delivering a payload of at least 500 kg to a distance of at least 300 km -- so-called "Category I" or "MTCR-class" missiles.

The Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation – 139 Signatures

The HCOC, as a political initiative, is aimed at bolstering efforts to curb ballistic missile proliferation worldwide and to further delegitimize such proliferation. The Code is meant to supplement the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) but its membership is not restricted. Under the Code, States make politically binding commitments to curb the proliferation of WMD-capable ballistic missiles and to exercise maximum restraint in developing, testing, and deploying such missiles. Given the similarities between the technologies used in ballistic missiles and civilian rockets, the Code also introduces transparency measures such as annual declarations and pre-launch notifications regarding ballistic missile and space launch programs.

Australia Group - 43 Participants

The Australia Group (AG) was founded in the aftermath of the massive use of chemical weapons during the Iran-Iraq war. The principal impetus for the AG was to ensure that the industries of the participating countries did not assist, either purposefully or inadvertently, states seeking to acquire CBW (chemical and biological weapons) capability. The AG observes and fully supports international treaties and commitments against chemical and biological weapons.

The Nuclear Suppliers Group - 48 Member States

The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a widely accepted, mature, and effective export-control arrangement, which contributes to the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons through implementation of guidelines for control of nuclear and nuclear-related exports. Members pursue the aims of the NSG through voluntary adherence to the Guidelines which are adopted by consensus and through exchanges of information on developments of nuclear proliferation concern.

Zangger Committee - 38 States

The Zangger Committee (ZC) seeks to harmonize implementation of the Non-Proliferation Treaty's requirement to apply International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards to nuclear exports. Article III.2 of the Treaty requires parties to ensure that IAEA safeguards are applied to exports to non-nuclear weapon states of (a) source or special fissionable material, or (b) equipment or material especially designed or prepared for the processing, use or production of special fissionable material. The Committee maintains and updates a list of equipment that may only be exported if safeguards are applied to the recipient facility, called the "Trigger List" because such exports trigger the requirement for safeguards.